Objective: Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is the second most common retinal vascular diseases after diabetic retinopathy. Delay in detection and treatment can result in irreversible visual impairment and blindness. The aim of this study was to assess the magnitude and clinical pattern of patients with RVO presentedd to the retina clinic at University of Gondar Tertiary Eye Care and Training Centre
Methods: A hospital based Cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2017 - March 2018 and patients of all ages with RVO seen at our retina clinic during the study period were reviewed. Pertinent ophthalmic history, ophthalmic clinical examination and laboratory tests were done including detailed fundoscopy for each patient. Data were collected with structured questionnaire, entered to SPSS version 20 and analysed.
Result: A total of 38 eyes of 36 new patients with RVOs were seen during the six month study period and reviewed. Twenty four (66%) study patients were males and the mean age was 58 ± 10.87 years. Thirty four (94.4%) patients had unilateral disease. Nineteen (52.78%) had Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO), 13 (36.11%) had branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) and 4 (11.11%) had hemispheric retinal vein occlusion (HRVO). Glaucoma was the commonest risk factor seen in 17 (47.22%) patients followed by systemic hypertension 10 (27.78%) and diabetes mellitus 8 (22%). The commonest complications encountered were macular edema, retinal or optic disc neovascularization and neovascular glaucoma seen in 15 (41.67%), 11 (30.5%) and 4 (11.11%) patients respectively. Over a third of patients 15 (41.67%) presented to our retina clinic after 6 months of onset of the illness and 15 (39.47%) eyes were blind at presentation.
Conclusion: Glaucoma, hypertension and diabetes mellitus were the most common risk factors identified among study patients. A majority of patients had potentially blinding complications. There was also delay in presentation. Diagnostic and therapeutic facilities of the center should be improved to prevent vision loss from complications. People should be educated to seek health care immediately after the onset of visual symptoms.