The incidence of ROP in India was reported to be 38 to 47%. The emergence of ROP was the end result of complex interaction between multiple factors.
Objectives: To find out the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity. To identify the risk factors which predispose to the development and progression of retinopathy of prematurity.
Methodology: The present study was hospital based descriptive study carried out in the department of ophthalmology, Rajah Muthiah Medical College and Hospital, Annamalai University, Chidambaram between January 2020 to March 2021. The study was carried out among infants born during the study period. They were screened for the emergence of ROP. All the sociodemographic and maternal related variables have been recorded on a proforma. The master chart was then created and analysed using SPSS version 26.
Results: Out of the 86 study participants, 53.5% were male, 50% belonged to gestational age of > 32 weeks, 73.3% were weighted less than or equal to 1500 grams and 26.7% were >1500 grams, 57% participants’ mothers had normal delivery, 83.7% of the mother had singleton delivery and 76.7% required oxygen supplementation. Among infants with birth weight less than or equal to 1500 grams, 23.8% had ROP, infants whose mother had gestational age <30 weeks, 33.3% infants who received oxygen supplementation had ROP. Among the study infants who had sepsis 58.3% had ROP. In the present study participants who received exchange transfusion 59.3% had developed ROP, variables like phototherapy, mode of delivery and twin delivery were not statistically significant.
Conclusion: The prevalence of retinopathy of prematurity was found to be on the higher side in the study population. Lower birth weight, lower gestational age, presence of RDS, history of sepsis and exchange transfusions were found to be the risk factors associated with ROP.