Objective: To evaluate the spectrum and frequency of patients presenting with vitreo-retinal diseases at a tertiary care hospital in Gujarat.
Material and Methods: A total of 92922 patients were seen on OPD basis at the Department of Ophthalmology, GMERS Medical College, Gandhi Nagar, from 01 January 2018 to 31 December 2020. Their data was obtained from the OPD register. Demographic details, evaluation of vision with refraction, anterior segment slit lamp examination, dilated posterior segment slit lamp examination with 90 D lens, indirect ophthalmoscopy with 20 D lens were done. When needed ultrasound (B Scan), Fundus Fluorescein angiography and OCT examination were also done. Data was analysed for simple frequency and inter group differences were performed using the Chi-Square test.
Results: Out of the total OPD patients, 4952 patients had vitreo-retinal diseases. Diabetic retinopathy was the most common vitreo-retinal disease. Vision threatening DR was found in 884 patients having DR. Age related macular degeneration (ARMD) and Retinal Vascular occlusive diseases were the next common vitreo retinal diseases causing vision impairment. Co-existent DM and Hypertension were the most common associated systemic diseases. Hematological tests, OCT were the most commonly done investigations.
Conclusion: Diabetes is major factor contributing to blindness due to vitreo retinal diseases in the form of Diabetic Retinopathy and its association with retinal vessel occlusive disease. With the changing demographic in the coming years, this problem is going to increase. The time has now come to rise up to the situation and plan the establishment of human resources, early screening, timely management and awareness of the disease and to make it affordable and easily accessible to the community.