Abstract:Background & Objectives:
Ocular diseases like cataract, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma and ARMD are some of the ocular associations observed in patients with deficient Vitamin D levels. Although earlier studies have addressed the issue of metabolic factors leading to cataract in infants, studies on adults is lacking. In our current study we intend to assess and analyse the serum vitamin D3 levels in patients with early cataractous changes aged <50 years, attending our out-patient department versus normal patients.
Methods: The current study was a prospective case control study conducted on 54 subjects, aged 18-50years, divided into two equal groups (Group 1 – cataract patients, Group 2- Non cataractous) from May 2020 to May 2021. Grading and classification of cataracts was done by LOCS –Lens opacity classification system using a Slit-lamp. Blood sample of 5ml was taken from each patient and assayed for levels of vitamin D3. P<0.05 was taken as the level of significance of the study.
Results: Patients in both groups were matched for age and gender, showed no statistical difference. In the cataract group the most common morphogical type of cataract was cortical cataract (34.3%) followed by the posterior subcapsular cataract 38.3% and 27.4% of patients accounted for nuclear cataract. Mean Vitamin D3 level observed in the cataract group was 13.9±5.32, while mean 25-OH D level in the control group was 21.63 ± 10.6 ng/mL, which was statistically significant at P value < 0.05, although cataract group were categorised to have frank vitamin D3 deficiency, control group was categorised as vitamin D3insufficiency as per recommended national Vitamin D3 levels. We did not find any correlation with the type of cataract and vitamin D3 levels in our patients.
Conclusion: Although a direct link to decreased serum Vitamin D3 and cataract can be established, the type of cataract developing due to vitamin D deficiency is debatable and more studies are needed. Perhaps those studies which estimates and correlates ocular vitamin D3 levels with systemic or serum Vitamin D3 levels would provide a much better analysis of the above research question.